The Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis was discovered in 1972 in the Varna Lake area and is dated to the end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth millennium BC. It is believed that the findings of "Varna gold" are the oldest technologically processed gold in Europe and the world.

Varna Chalcolithic necropolis: Symbolic burials from graves 36, 2 and 3

The Varna Chalcolithic Necropolis was discovered in 1972 in the Varna Lake area and is dated to the end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth millennium BC. It is believed that the finds of "Varna Gold" are the oldest technologically processed gold in Europe and the world, attributed to the so-called Varna Culture (XNUMXth millennium BC).

Grave No. 36 – symbolic burial
The tomb was located in the southeastern sector of the necropolis, where most of the burials with rich grave goods were found. The dimensions and orientation of the burial pit were not determined due to the uniformity of the material on the ground and that in the grave. The gifts were found distributed in several places in the burial pit. In the northern part, dentalium shells were found scattered around a copper axe. The central part is marked with a golden staff and two golden bracelets. Zoomorphic appliqués and figures are also found around the staff. The rest of the gold objects are scattered throughout the burial pit. A marble vessel covering a bone idol and a flint plate are located in the southern sector of the pit. Two ceramic vessels and a flint plate were also found, along with an animal tooth and a copper needle. The total number of objects in this symbolic burial is 857, and the weight of the gold objects is 789 grams.
Chalcolithic, XNUMXth millennium BC.
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Grave No. 2 – symbolic burial of an idol
The burial pit is rectangular, with dimensions of 2,25 x 0,90 m, at a depth of 1,50 m. Orientation: northeast - southwest. A layer of dark organic matter and red ocher was traced on the bottom of the pit - objects of gold, copper, flint, bone and clay were found on top. A layer of organic matter and red ocher was traced above them. In the north-eastern part of the pit, a relief modeled human face was found in a face made of lightly fired clay, measuring 20 x 19,5 cm. A gold diadem was placed on the forehead, 5 earrings were strung on the left ear, and 3 earrings on the right; the eyes are marked with gold round plates, the mouth with a rectangular gold plate, and 7 golden nails are driven under it. On the neck - two golden anthropomorphic amulets. A group of four clay vessels and two gold rings were found east of the clay face. At the south-west end of the pit were found a korubus bone idol, a copper needle, a flint plate, a stone spindle vertebra, gold appliqués for a garment and dentalium shells.
Chalcolithic, XNUMXth millennium BC. NIM/AM Varna
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Grave No. 3 – symbolic burial of an idol
The burial pit is rectangular, with dimensions of 1,95 x 1 m, at a depth of 1,60 m. Orientation: northeast - southwest. A layer of dark organic matter and red ocher was traced on the bottom of the pit and above the finds. In the northeastern part of the pit, a relief-modeled human face was found in a face of slightly fired clay measuring 21 x 18 cm. The anatomical details – eyes, mouth and teeth, are marked with gold plates; on the ears are strung gold rings, on the forehead - a golden diadem and on the neck - two strings of kaolin beads with a golden anthropomorphic amulet each. East of the face, three ceramic vessels were discovered. A marble idol, gold appliqués and a nail, a flint plate, a marble vessel, a lump of graphite and 39 dentalium shells were placed in the southwestern part of the pit. In the middle of the pit, 28 triangular bone appliqués, probably from a belt, were found. 
Chalcolithic, XNUMXth millennium BC. 
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