In the space between halls 1 and 2 of the exposition of the National History Museum, the development of the Bulgarian lands in the period of the Early Iron Age XI century BC - the middle of the VI century BC is traced. It occurred in the Balkan Peninsula with the introduction of iron as the main metal for the production of tools, weapons and, in part, jewelry. The tin crisis at the end of the Bronze Age necessitated the mining and production of iron, although bronze continued to be one of the leading materials in the manufacture of weapons and jewellery. Evidence of mining, metalworking, jewelry, metalwork, and numerous metal products of local origin are evidence of the skills of the Thracian tribes in these areas of production. Depending on the specific geographical features, the livelihood of the local tribes is dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry. Archaeological studies also prove the development of specific crafts such as pottery, leather and woodworking.

The processes of social stratification, the disintegration of the tribal community and the growing role of the aristocracy in state-education trends, inherited from the previous period, reached a complete form by the middle of the XNUMXst millennium BC. A clear expression of them can be observed as early as the XNUMXth - XNUMXth centuries BC, when findings were found proving a deep social difference in the society of the local tribes. The appearance of rich grave complexes, such as the symbolic burial from the area of ​​the village of Belish, commune. Troyan from the end of the XNUMXth - the beginning of the XNUMXth century BC. is evidence of the formation of a leading layer with high material capabilities.

The apparent power of the military aristocracy at the end of the Early Iron Age led to intertribal conflicts and the creation of the first Thracian state organizations. From the ancient Greek sources we obtain information about their existence in four main areas: the first is located in the lands east of Hebros (river Maritsa) and is associated with the ethnonym Thracians, the second is located in the lands east of Nestos (river Mesta), inhabited of the kikones centered on the mythical Ismar (ancient Maroneia), the third is placed in the lands on both sides of the lower reaches of the Strymon river (Struma river), where the peons live, and the fourth around the lands along the lower reaches of the Istros river (Danube river ), known for the dwellings of the Geths. At the end of the considered period, ancient Greek historians mention the ethnonym of the Odris, who during the Late Iron Age created one of the largest kingdoms (basilea) in Southeastern Europe.

Read the whole text
Scroll to Top