Architectural detail with a cross and the inscription "AZ, GAGO", testifying to the high level of literacy among the Tarnovo population in the second half of the XNUMXth century. Limestone and traces of coloring; ROME - Veliko Tarnovo

"The barbarian king Bayazid, who was proud of his victories and the conquest of many nations, decided - the good-hater! – to ravage the city [Tarnovo], because he had heard that it was very large, beautiful and fortified with walls…”

Conquest of Tarnovo by the Ottomans, July 17, 1393.

After the Battle of Kosovo Field on June 15, 1389, Sultan Bayazid I the Lightning (1389-1402) left the Balkan Christian states alone for a while as he was busy subduing the independent Turkish Beyliks in Asia Minor. After two years of calm, in 1391, Ottoman troops crossed the Danube and defeated the Wallachian voivode Mircho I Stari (1386-1418). The following year, Ottoman troops reached and devastated southern Hungary. The Hungarian king Sigismund I of Luxembourg (1387-1437), who, however, later became emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, immediately retaliated and defeated one of their detachments.

The ruler of the Tarnovo Kingdom - Tsar Ivan Shishman (1371-1395), who had long been waiting for an opportune moment to reject his vassal position vis-à-vis the Ottoman Empire, hopeful entered into negotiations with Sigismund for the creation of a military alliance against the Ottomans. After Bayezid, known for his violent temper and temper, learned about the negotiations in the spring of 1393, he marched with a large army against Tarnovo. At the same time, Tsar Ivan Shishman was in Nikopol.
Tarnovgrad was besieged from three sides by the Ottoman army. In the absence of the ruler, the defenders were supported by the last patriarch of Turnov during the Bulgarian Middle Ages, Euthymius (b. early 30s of the 1402th century – †c. XNUMX).

Architectural detail with a cross and the inscription "AZ, GAGO", testifying to the high level of literacy among the Tarnovo population in the second half of the XNUMXth century. Limestone and traces of coloring; ROME - Veliko Tarnovo
Architectural detail with a cross and the inscription "AZ, GAGO", testifying to the high level of literacy among the Tarnovo population in the second half of the XNUMXth century. Limestone and traces of coloring; ROME - Veliko Tarnovo

In hall 3-west of the permanent exposition of the National History Museum, you can see numerous testimonies of the destruction of the majestic and glorious Tarnovgrad after the middle of July 1393. Among them, here we show:

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