Hall "Ethnography" - Bulgarian folk culture. Calendar holidays. Costumes. List of all permanent exhibitionsHall 1 - The Bulgarian lands from the beginning of the VI-th millennium BC. until the end of the II-nd millennium BC.Hall 2 – The Bulgarian lands in the period from the end of VI BC. to the XNUMXth century AD.Hall 3 – The Bulgarian state in the Middle Ages VII-XIV centuries.Hall 4 – Bulgarian lands under Ottoman rule (XV-XIX centuries)Hall 5 – Third Bulgarian Kingdom 1878-1946"Antarctica - the Bulgarian ice fairy tale"Hall "Ethnography" - Bulgarian folk culture. Calendar holidays. CostumesDonation Boyan Radev Hall To Exposition and exhibitions Plan a visit Traditional clothing from the late XNUMXth and early XNUMXth centuries is an important part of the material culture of the Bulgarian people. Along with language, it is one of the most authentic indicators of nationality.The exhibition presents traditional costumes from the various ethnographic regions - Dobruja, Thrace, Rhodopes, Danube Plain, Staroplaninska Region, Shopluka and Macedonia. Hall "Ethnography". Traditional clothing General view Hall "Ethnography". Calendar holidays General view Hall "Ethnography". Calendar holidays General view In their basic forms, folk costumes are clothes adapted to the different working conditions and adapted to the main livelihoods of the Bulgarians in the past - agriculture and animal husbandry. The clothes are mostly made of wool, hemp or linen - they are made from the main raw materials that the Bulgarian produces and are suitable for the changing climatic conditions. The making of clothing (from the raw materials to the embroidery on the garment) has until late been a manual domestic activity - primarily of the women and partly of the men in the family. Read the whole text In Bulgarian ethnographic science, traditional costumes have been classified into several main types with a certain geographical distribution. According to the cut and the way of wearing the upper clothes, placed directly above the shirt, women's costumes are divided into three groups - two-overcoat, sukmanena and sayana. The double apron women's costume is characteristic of Northern Bulgaria. In its basic composition, it is composed of a shirt and two aprons that surround the woman's body from the front and the back, tied around her waist. The cloth costume is distributed in the central regions of the country - Stara Planina, Srednogorieto, Rozova Dolina, Vitosha, Rila, Middle Rhodopes, Sakar, Strandja and South-Eastern Thrace. In the mountainous regions of Northern Bulgaria, the cloth costume was used at the same time as the double apron, but mainly as a garment for the winter season. The Sayana costume is the type of women's clothing worn in Macedonia, part of Central Western Bulgaria, Thrace and Asia Minor. Loose along the entire front length, the saiya is the preferred outer garment in the southern parts of the country. Men's costumes are divided into two types - white clothes and black clothes (depending on the main color of the outer clothes and their shape). They are not tied to a geographical distribution, but are two consecutive stages in the development of men's clothing. The ancient white dress costume has been preserved for the longest time in North-West and South-West Bulgaria. The black-shirted costume, which originally appeared at the end of the XNUMXth and the beginning of the XNUMXth century in the economically developed regions of Central and Eastern Bulgaria, almost completely replaced the white-shirted men's clothing in the first decades of the XNUMXth century. Until late, however, the white benevrets in the costume of the Sofia shopkeepers, the white cheshires and the bozo abika in Samokovsko and Dupnishko were preserved. A basic garment in all folk costumes is the shirt. Made of linen, hemp, and later cotton canvas, in ancient costumes it performed the role of both an undergarment and an upper garment. In the composition of the two-apron costume, the shirt is mostly of the barchanka type, with folds around the neck opening and the ends of the sleeves, while in the sukmanena and sayana costumes it is tunic-shaped. The decoration of the shirt - from woven or embroidered ornaments, located on the edges of the skirts and sleeves, around the armpit cut and the collar, makes it decisive in the aesthetic impact of the traditional suit. Compositionally, the traditional folk costume is complemented by the following elements: apron, belt, belt, footwear accessories (socks, socks, socks, tservuli, slippers, shoes), towels for weaving. The full composition of the costume also includes outerwear, different in type, name and decoration in different regions. An important part of shaping the traditional women's costume are the ornaments to it. Their production is the work of master goldsmiths (goldsmiths) working in the old goldsmith centers of Chiprovtsi, Vratsa, Kratovo, Sofia, or in the ones formed as such during the Renaissance - Panagyurishte, Vidin, Plovdiv, Sliven, Teteven, etc. The main materials from which most jewelry is made are silver and its alloys. Gold is mainly used for gilding, and the jewelry in which it is used is usually made to order. Placed in central and important places on the human body - head, waist, chest, jewelry performs not only an aesthetic but also a protective function. They are also a sign of social, religious and age affiliation. Calendar holidays The ethnographic exposition of the museum presents a selected part of the calendar holidays and rites of the Bulgarian people. From the winter calendar cycle, emphasis is placed on Christmas and New Year's customs and rites, on Christmas Eve with the festive table with ritual breads and foods; the hearth with the "Christmas tree" in it; caroling. New Year's Day (St. Basil's Day) is celebrated with the customs of "Surva" and "Chanting of Rings". From the spring calendar cycle, Tsvetnitsa with the maiden custom of Lazaruvane are presented; Easter with the "written" eggs and ritual breads characteristic of the holiday; St. George's Day - rites and beliefs mainly related to sheep farming. Charging, singing rings. Laduvane, with the main participants being girls who are already of marriageable age, is attached to one of the transitional holidays - New Year's Day, New Year's Day, which are considered by the people as a particularly suitable time for making predictions. Christmas gag, newly made Bucklitsa - wooden, with four legs and leather straps. Made in Svishtovsko at the beginning of the XNUMXth century Easter bread Ritual breads for Easter are prepared most often on Saturday, and sometimes on Friday. They have different names - egg shell, chupnik, egg shell, kukulnik, Easter kolak, Easter doll, etc. Easter written eggs Hall "Ethnography". Calendar holidays. General view Detail of a woman's cloth costume from Smolyansko The beginning of the XNUMXth century Detail of outer garment mint and kitage of lazarka from Sofia From the beginning of the XNUMXth century. Detail of an apron to a woman's cloth costume from Yambolsko From the end of the XIX - the beginning of the XX century. Weaving workshop Detail from an exhibit showing stages, raw materials and traditional tools in home weaving Map of the types of Bulgarian costumes, compiled by Hristo Vakarelski Autographed and dedicated by the author. Guest room from Yorgova House in Teteven XVIII century. Restoration Guest room from Yorgova House in Teteven XVIII century. Restoration Guest room from George House in the town of Teteven, XVIII century. Restoration Yorgova house is one of the nice old houses of the town of Teteven. It was built in the 1801th century and survived the burning of Teteven by the Kurdzhalians in XNUMX. The exhibition shows a guest room from this house.